L4Re - L4 Runtime Environment
Application and Server Building Blocks

So far we have discussed the environment of applications in which a single thread runs and which may invoke services provided through their initial objects.

In the following we describe some building blocks to extend the application in various dimensions and to eventually implement a server which implements user-level objects that may in turn be accessed by other applications and servers.

Creating Additional Application Threads

To create application threads, one must allocate a stack on which this thread may execute, create a thread kernel object and setup the information required at startup time (instruction pointer, stack pointer, etc.). In L4Re this functionality is encapsulated in the pthread library.

Providing a Service

In capability systems, services are typically provided by transferring a capability to those applications that are authorised to access the object to which the capability refers to.

Let us discuss an example to illustrate how two parties can communicate with each other: Assume a simple file server, which implements an interface for accessing individual files: read(pos, buf, length) and write(pos, data, length).

L4Re provides support for building servers based on the class L4::Server_object. L4::Server_object provides an abstract interface to be used with the L4::Server class. Specific server objects such as, in our case, files inherit from L4::Server_object. Let us call this class File_object. When invoked upon receiving a message, the L4::Server will automatically identify the corresponding server object based on the capability that has been provided to its clients and invoke this object's dispatch function with the incoming message as a parameter. Based on this message, the server must then decide which of the protocols it implements was invoked (if any). Usually, it will evaluate a protocol specific opcode that clients are required to transmit as one of the first words in the message. For example, assume our server assigns the following opcodes: Read = 0 and Write = 1. The dispatch function calls the corresponding server function (i.e., File_object::read() or File_object::write()), which will in turn parse additional parameters given to the function. In our case, this would be the position and the amount of data to be read or written. In case the write function was called the server will now update the contents of the file with the data supplied. In case of a read it will store the requested part of the file in the message buffer. A reply to the client finishes the client request.